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DATE RANGE: A.D. 1150 to 1225


CORE: Construction: by coiling and scraping. Fired: in reducing atmosphere. Core: gray. Temper: abundant opaque angular fragments, sherd, occasional grains of quartz sand. Vessel walls: medium. Fracture: slightly crumbling. Surface finish: bowl interiors and jar exteriors carefully smoothed and evenly coated with thick paper-white slip; frequently somewhat bumpy; scraping marks usually very conspicuous; sometimes coated with thin dead-white wash, unevenly applied, polished only in rare instances of exterior decoration; jar interiors moderately smoothed; exterior bowl surfaces occasionally corrugated, corrugations clapboard style or indented. Surface color: gray or white. Forms: jars, bowls, pitchers, dippers, effigies. Thickness bowls: 2.9 to 8.1 mm. Pigment: organic. Decoration: painted black, usually thin and watery, occasionally dense, almost always lacking in sharpness of outline. Designs: usually interior surfaces of bowls, rarely bowl exteriors, only exterior surfaces of jars, Decorative style: bowl exteriors either all over layout or wide band with open circle in bottom, band layout always framed above and below with wide encircling line; all over layout sometimes framed just below rim, sometimes to carries to rim; usually balanced, sometimes almost negative of solid elements and straight lines; usually wide lines and stripes, opposed steps, solid triangles, triangular
scrolls, zig-zag lines, barbed lines in opposed pairs producing negative lightning effect; curved lined rare, hatching absent; open squares and diamonds with occasional dots; bowl exteriors rarely with wide band of elements similar to elements on interiors; jar exteriors decorated in two bands, one around neck and one around body, both sometimes continuous, usually divided into rectangular panels by from two to four vertical lines; panels filled with solid elements in general similar to those on bowl interiors.

Three varieties of Walnut Black-on-white can be recognized, based on styles of design: Variety A, Sosi style of design, but with lines under.5 cm in width; Variety B, Walnut Black-on-white, with interlocking triangular scrolls characteristic; Variety C, Tularosa Style, hatching contrasted with massed elements.
RANGE: Tributaries of Little Colorado River, east of San Francisco Peaks, to an including Petrified Forest National Monument. Found in trade in Verde Valley and Tonto Basin.
COMPARISONS: There is some similarity to Roosevelt Black-on-white which has mineral paint. Roosevelt Black-on-white is predominately water-worn quartz sand with less abundant angular fragments. The paint is also dense and richer with sharp clear-cut outlines; there is sometimes a suggestion of glaze. Jar necks of Roosevelt Black-on-white almost always are decorated with independent panels or isolated solid elements.


Dept. of Anthropology, P.O. Box 15200,
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011-5200, USA.