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ESE504 : The Class : Advanced CD : LD

Learning Disabilities

Over and over again I started this page, and it is has been impossible. Every time I opened the file, I couldn't follow through.

Finally, one morning, I woke, knowing what the problem is. I just don't believe in Learning Disabilities - no offense to Sam Kirk. I know it is the fastest growing category in education for special needs children, but I can't believe in it.

I believe in Learning Abilities

Babies learn constantly - not in the same way as each other, but each moment is a learning moment. Children love to learn, too. They are consistently picking up new skills, sharpening abilities, working on large muscle coordination, small muscle refinement, questioning and making meaning of things in their lives.

Not many infants are formally taught. We have infant stimulation programs for little ones who are delayed. They are carefully designed to help the baby take the next step, not to teach something a baby is not ready for, or something babies do not normally learn and do.

That model is extremely successful - helping a child take the next step, or assisting an infant to strengthen underlying skills to make the next manuever and become more ready to advance personal strengths.

I am a teacher, and I believe in teaching and learning. I believe that great teachers teach what a student needs to learn, is prepared to learn, is excited about and motivated to learn. A great teacher does not teach to the test for the sake of scores -- a master teacher teaches the student what he or she can learn for the sake of the child. And a child's skills are honed so that child can be all he or she is and share that with other children, and ultimately with society.

I believe each of us has strengths and hard places when we are learning, but I believe in seeing what will work, not what will look good.

Low scores = not able to work comfortably at the same pace and on the same material as peers. They may signal learning problems, or missed skills, but they may also tell us that the student is just not ready to process that information.

They may let us know that math is not a strength, but they do not tell us that math is a disability.

They may tell us that the student is not ready to learn math as it is being presented, but they do not tell us that the student is not ready to learn math.

They may tell us that the student is not ready to learn math today, but they do not tell us that a student is not ever going to be ready to learn math.

Low scores do not = learning disability

For ME
When we look at what is working, we find a key.
When we look at what a child can do - likes to do - is consumed doing, we find a learning ability.
When we look at what a child cannot do, puts off, refuses to work on, gets poor scores on, that is the key to help us do a better job of helping the youngster. We view it as a challenge - an opportunity.
When we find something a child cannot do, we find a challenge rather than a disability. Our challenge is to find what will work, what ought to come next, to prepare the student TO DO
When we find something a student may never be able to do - we move on to what they can do rather than labeling the student as disabled. Can't carry a tune? Then that is not your strength, so we focus on what you can do. Can't memorize times tables? We will help you memorize something else, and give you a calculator. Can't see colors? We will help you adapt and work on what you do well.


Do you get blown away by the storm?

or can you envision the rainbow?

How will you, teacher, find a way to open the doors to the mind?

How will you, teacher, build a bridge with this student so that the chasm can be safely crossed?

How will you build a boat together so you and the student can make the voyage, tacking and avoiding the dangers, arriving at understanding and success in safety?

Of course, this is one professor's opinion. It flies in the face of all kinds of theories and definitions and programs. Even IDEA '97 includes it as a category . . . So:

1) You can e-mail me and give me your ideas about LD

2) You can read more about LD and come to your own conclusions about this

3) You can surf the net and find what other experts say about the subject

4) You can read texts about Children with Special Needs and see what other authorities say

5) You can just know that I am wrong, shrug and move on!

What do authorities in special education say about Learning disabilities?

Definitions of Learning Disability
Menninger's: There are many types of learning disabilities. If your child seems to have more difficulty with academic tasks than would be expected based on intellectual ability, he or she may have a learning disability. A comprehensive educational evaluation can help determine the nature and extent of the problems and identify helpful teaching strategies. She knows her spelling words for the test but then spells them all wrong the next week. His homework is completely finished, but then he forgets to hand it in. He seems so bright, but his grades are terrible, and he hates to read. The other kids are doing fractions, but she is still stuck on the multiplication tables. He can tell you all about something, but he canít put it down on paper. He did OK in high school, but now he is really struggling in college, and he always hated to read.
National Institute of Mental Health: "Learning disability" is not a diagnosis in the same sense as "chickenpox" or "mumps." Chickenpox and mumps imply a single, known cause with a predictable set of symptoms. Rather, LD is a broad term that covers a pool of possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Partly because learning disabilities can show up in so many forms, it is difficult to diagnose or to pinpoint the causes. And no one knows of a pill or remedy that will cure them.
National Institute of Health: Learning Disability is a disorder that affects people's ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain. These limitations can show up in many ways: as specific difficulties with spoken and written language, coordination, self control, or attention. Such difficulties extend to schoolwork and can impede learning to read, write, or do math.

PL94-142 and IDEA: In general, the term "specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations.

Disorders included: Such terms includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia.

Disorders not included: Such terms does not include learning problem that is primarily the result of visual hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage. -IDEA, 20 u.s.c. ff 1400 et seq., 1997

National Committee on Learning Disabilities, 1994 - Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition of and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction and may appear across the life span. Problems of self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction may exist with learning disabilities, but do not themselves constitute a learning disability. Although learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (for example, sensory impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance) or with extrinsic influences (such as cultural difference, significant or inappropriate instruction), they are not the result of those conditions or influences.

Learning Disabilities: Specific Areas of Learning Disabilities Learning Disabilities is a term used to describe a wide range of disabilities and not one single disability. Therefore the broad field of Learning Disabilities may be subdivided into smaller categories. Then the characteristics of each category may be more easily discussed rather than attempting to describe the characteristics of learning disabilities as a whole. The categories into which a learning disability may be classified are as defined according to the difficulties the student experiences.

Expressing Oral Language Individuals in this category have trouble combining the individual components of the spoken English language to communicate ideas and concepts. An individual in this category may have no trouble organizing and developing written thoughts. It is when they have to speak those thoughts that they experience difficulties.

Understanding Oral Language Individuals in this category have difficulties processing oral language and interpreting the abstract ideas and concepts symbolized by the spoken word. While the individual may have difficulties understanding oral language, they may be perfectly capable of expressing their own thoughts in words or writing.

Basic Reading Skills These individuals experience difficulties in translating written symbols into sounds and words.

Understanding Written Material While these individuals may have mastered the art of interpreting written symbols into sounds and words, they have difficulty in understanding the overall meaning of the written language while it is being read. They may have no problem reading each individual word, but they find themselves unable to understand the meaning of the sentences and the paragraphs that the words make up.

Calculating/Reasoning Math Other individuals experience difficulties in understanding the relationships between mathematical concepts. They find it difficult to grasp the symbols and spatial relationships associated with mathematics and with sequencing and the concept of numerical value. Written Expression Some individuals may be perfectly able to form spoken words into sentences and ideas. However, they may be unable to express those ideas in the form of writing. Organizational/Content Skills Many learning disabled students have difficulty in grouping or arranging concepts, ideas, and general information in a logical order.

Behavioral Characteristics of Learning Disabled Students

Since LD does not occur in isolation, it can be difficult to sort out the difference between can and cannot, will and won't. Of course, by my definition, the label is not the point. Rather, it is critical to recognize the markers of a student who is having difficulty with the material or the way it is being presented.

Our personal philosophy about education tends to define our view of student actions. If we believe that children are built to learn, love to learn and only stop when thwarted, discouraged or attending to another need, then we see a student who is not learning as an opportunity for intervention and support.

If we have a world view that suggests that children do not want to learn, are lazy or unmotivated and tend to intentionally seek ways to disrupt, then we may see student lack of learning as a personal attack or a child's individual agenda.

In the first view, we see the student as worthy of our help, time and attention.

In the second viewpoint, we see the child as the enemy and may slip into an adversarial stance.

Slip into the comfort of seeing children as wishing to learn, vitally compelled to work at knowing, always thinking. From that position, look at the following checklist of things students do when learning isn't fun or satisfying.

[Just for fun, try this checklist on yourself. Of course, it will be a better fit if you do it as you feel about a subject that gives you difficulty.]

LDA of Canada Checklist

This check list is designed to alert the classroom teacher to the possible presence of a learning disability among one or more of his/her students. It is on the web at The Learning Disabilities Association of Canada site and was developed by Foothills Academy in Calgary.

Directions: For each characteristic described below, check YES if the child exhibits the behavior. You will probably find that children will have greater deficits in one area than in another. This will indicate areas of strength and weakness. A few children will have many deficit areas. Because this check list is not standardized and results will be based on each teacher's subjective judgment, it is recommended that the teacher complete a check list for every child in his/her class. Students who score abnormally high in comparison to the other students will then be most suspect. If you are concerned that a child in your class is learning disabled, you may wish to seek further assessment.

1. Seems bright Yes No
2. Does some things well, others poorly Yes No
3. Is failing at school in one or more subjects Yes No
Auditory Disabilities:  
1. Doesn't listen in class Yes No
2. Doesn't remember what he is told, eg: following directions Yes No
3. Has limited speaking and/or listening vocabulary Yes No
4. Has a poor sense of rhythm Yes No
5. Can't discriminate between similar sounds Yes No
6. Mispronounces words Yes No
7. Has difficulty learning phonics: eg sounding out words Yes No
8. Reading errors are similar in meaning, eg puppy-dog Yes No
9. Spelling errors resemble correct word in appearance Yes No
10. Remembers what he sees Yes No
Visual Disabilities:  
1. Reverses letters when reading or writing Yes No
2. Is a slow reader Yes No
3. Sounds out words that should be sight words Yes No
4. Reading substitutions are visually similar but disrupt the meaning, eg horse-house Yes No
5. Loses his place or omits words when reading Yes No
6. Has difficulty copying from the board Yes No
7. Spelling errors are phonetic Yes No
8. Can't remember what he has seen: eg pictures, scenes Yes No
9. Has a superior ability to remember what he has heard Yes No
Oral Language Disabilities:  
1. Speaks in incomplete sentences Yes No
2. Has an immature vocabulary Yes No
3. Can't seem to find the word(s) to express his thoughts Yes No
4. Dislikes participating in class discussions Yes No
5. Has poor reading comprehension Yes No
6. Uses incorrect verb tenses Yes No
7. Mispronounces words Yes No
8. Sentences seem "mixed up" Yes No
9. Uses gestures rather than words Yes No
Written Language Disabilities  
1. Poor writing posture Yes No
2. Written work is untidy Yes No
3. Sequence of movements in forming letters is incorrect Yes No
4. Beyond grade three, is still reversing letters Yes No
5. Letters vary in size and wander off the lines Yes No
6. Has difficulty copying from the board Yes No
7. Is slow completing written work Yes No
8. Can't seem to express ideas in writing in a logical or intelligible manner Yes No
Motor Coordination:  
1. Is poor in sports Yes No
2. Seems clumsy Yes No
3. Drops things Yes No
4. Has poor balance Yes No
5. Has poor eye-hand coordination: eg. cutting, writing Yes No
1. Can't tell time Yes No
2. Lacks ability to judge time spans: eg. bed time, birth date Yes No
3. Performs poorly on timed tests or assignments Yes No
4. Can't plan ahead Yes No
5. Gets lost Yes No
6. Confuses directions: eg. north, south, left, right Yes No
7. Has difficulty making comparisons of size and/or distance Yes No
1. Acts impulsively: eg. acts first, thinks later Yes No
2. Is moving constantly Yes No
3. Behavior is inconsistent from day to day Yes No
4. Is disruptive in class Yes No
5. Has a short attention span Yes No
1. Attention seems to wander Yes No
2. Daydreams Yes No
3. Comments are off topic Yes No
4. Starts assignments without having listened to directions Yes No
1. Is easily distracted by sights and sounds around him/her Yes No
2. Can't discriminate between what is important and what isn't Yes No
1. Persists in an activity or a train of thought to an obsessive level Yes No
Organization: Yes No
1. Is rarely prepared for class Yes No
2. Loses assignments and personal belongings Yes No
3. Has a messy locker and/or desk Yes No
4. Notes are disorganized Yes No
5. Is often late or forgetful Yes No
Social Perception:  
1. Dislikes school, complains frequently Yes No
2. Seldom takes responsibility for his own actions: eg. blames others Yes No
3. Loses his temper easily Yes No
4. Insensitive to the feelings of others Yes No
5. Has few friends Yes No
6. Is withdrawn Yes No
7. Does not participate in group activities Yes No
8. Does not like change Yes No

Scoring: Definition = 3; Coordination = 6; Auditory Disabilities =10; Orientation =7; Visual Disabilities =9; Attentional Disabilities = 12; Oral Language Disabilities = 9; Organization = 5; Written Language Disabilities = 8; Social Perception = 8; TOTAL: 77

Information about LD

Personal notes

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities NICHCY

Large site with info and links

LD Home page - large organization

Discussion on learning disabilities

Check list to initiate inquiry into LD

Council for Learning Disabilities

Definitions for many sources


Tips and Strategies

Educational Interventions
Personal Notes

Solutions to learning disabilities - free chapter on line

Teaching writing

Reading, writing, 'rithmetic and ADHD

Assistive technology devices to support learning

Web site for kids ages 6-15- dyslexia in particular

Web site for adults with LD and for information about literacy



Gathering information and reading about youngsters with the wide spectrum of learning issues may obscure our earlier discussions about the importance of seeing the student first and recognizing the importance of meeting basic needs.

Our need to be and our need to do are intertwined. In our schools, the emphasis on the need to do often overshadows our interest in who a student is. Especially with students who are experiencing the LD feeling, it is best to remember the old refrain ---


Meeting Student Needs and Promoting Communication and Personal Growth

Just as you would with anyone you care for, pay attention to the needs - the real, pressing needs to be and feel successful. When a youth needs space or stimulation, instead of becoming involved in a power struggle such as - "You will do this assignment or this homework and you will do it now like everyone else" kind of response, engage in problem solving. Some students cannot read. You may need to make accommodations. After all, you would if the student were blind. If a student cannot make notes as you lecture, some other student may need to share notes, or you might agree to have the material taped while you are teaching.

Many teachers believe that tests show who didn't try. I think tests show who didn't get the connection - and that belongs to teacher and student. Every "F" I record is a reflection of my teaching ability.

Many teachers believe that they have a right to teach. I believe we have a responsibility to teach. If a student is not learning or cooperating, that failure is partly mine.

This chart gives an example of a positive and supportive way to approach this.

Student action


Creative solution
Student refuses to speak in front of the class

Student - to be soothed - Safety - or in some situations, control


Increase the level of comfort and safety for the student and begin slowly - first talking with a buddy, and when ready, sharing with a group. Do not force a presentation.
Student refuses to work on an assignment

Student - fluency


Few students will admit to being poor readers. I know very few who will say they did not understand their readers. Refusal is one way to save face. "I won't" may mean, "I can't." In the early years, the student will be receptive to you sitting down and working with them. You will learn a lot by putting in a few minutes working on the class tasks.
Student raises hand and talks off the subject during instructional question and answer time Student - may have be easily distracted, have problems with impulse control, need for attention, need for control, lack of social awareness, or think and process slowly enough that by the time the thoughts are framed, the class has gone on. Work to determine the reason for inappropriate responses. The student may not realize that when s/he is not talking, thinking and being is still occurring, may not pick up social context, may have issues with impulse control, may not be hearing, or organizing the content or context. This is actually a wonderful symptom that can alert the teacher to the need to focus on supporting a child's learning needs.


Fill in the next three cell rows, using the ideas you gain from experience, from materials in the text and in your web searches. Identify a likely student behavior that may hamper learning and then go through the process of defining needs, then finding a solution that allows everyone to get needs met [25 points have been allotted for this activity].

Finding out about a student's individual learning style can support your work with students who are having trouble staying focused, getting started or completing assignments.

List tests you might use to evaluate learning style and learning preferences. This activity is worth 25 points. An interesting test, besides those that you have experienced in this class is the Slingerland. It tells a lot about a student's memory, ability to focus, use of visual or auditory cues.

If you develop a folder and begin compiling assessment material, give yourself 50 points.]


Activity List

1. Read one of the suggested books and make a list of ideas you might want to try in your classroom to support youngsters with different learning styles and strengths.[50 pts].

2. Watch one or more of the following VCR presentations: [50 points each]. Review the characterization of LD for another 25 points per movie.

Einstein and Me. Available through the Learning Disabilities Association of Massachusetts, 1275 Main Street, Waltham, MA (617) 891-5009. Dr. Jerome Schultz interviews students about their experiences with learning disabilities.

How Difficult Can this Be? F.A.T. CITY. Available through CACLD, 18 Marshall Street, South Norwalk, CT 06854. (203) 838-5010. F.A.T. CITY explores the frustrations, anxiety and tension associated with learning disabilities through a simulation created by Richard Lavoie in a workshop format with teachers, parents and students.

Last One Picked...First One Picked On. Learning Disabilities and Social Skills: Available through Public Broadcasting Service (800) 344-3337. In this video, Richard Lavoie uses a workshop format to explain the social problems that LD youngsters face.

3. Make a historic time line [click for a nice web review], showing the evolution of our care and concern for those with alternate learning styles or LD.[50 points]

4. Learn about sign language and why it might be helpful in communicating with students who have auditory processing delays. Try to find an opportunity to work one on one for an hour with someone who has reading difficulties. You will probably find people in your family, dorm or class who is having difficulty. If you are at a college, there are also opportunities to work with peers as a tutor. [50 points].

5. Identify three commonly held fallacies about learning disabilities [Einstein is one of them!] and then provide three fact based beliefs about people with a cognitive processing issue. [15 points]

6. Locate and review one of the diagnostic instruments used to evaluate youngsters who may have cognitive disorders. In general, do you expect students to score in a wide range of intellectual abilities, or will more students score way above average intelligence? [25 points]. For an interesting look at LD, surf the web looking for material on people who are "gifted LD." [25 points].

7. What impact does disease have on cognitive abilities? [Examples - measles, HIV, herpes]. Discuss in detail for 50 points. What effect do substances have on cognitive abilities? [Examples, crack, alcohol, thalidomide]. Discuss in detail for 50 points. What about the theories of food allergies, sugar, caffeine? Again, discuss in detail for 50 points.

8. Competition, grading on the curve and time tests can decrease the LD student's ability to perform. . Feel free to explore these ideas and write a 500 - 1000 word essay discussing findings. [50 points].

9. There are several very different kinds of learning disabilities and clusters of symptoms that are included in the broad diagnosis of Learning Disabilities. Choose one of the categories and find at least 10 articles or discussions about the characteristics of the condition. Feel free to use materials off the web, as well. Then write a paper of 500-100 words, discussing the challenges these young people have and provide a set of methods or materials that might address strengths and diminish barriers to education. [100 points each]

10. Remember to feel free to develop your own personal response to the material. Allot yourself approximately 25 points per hour for your work.

Book List

Brown, C. (1965). Manchild in the promised land. New York: Macmillan.

Lee, D. (1992). Faking it: A look into the mind of a creative learner. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman Educational Books. Moss, P. B. (1990).

An autobiography: P Buckley Moss: The people's artist. Waynesboro, VA: Shenandoah Heritage. Sacks, O. (1985).

The man who mistook his wife for a hat. New York: Summit Books. Troyer, P. H. (1986).

Father Bede's misfit. Monkton, MD: York Press.


Academic Therapy Publications. (1995). Directory of Facilities and Services for the Learning Disabled. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy Publications. This directory is published every two years and includes a state-by-state list of private schools, facilities, diagnostic and tutorial services.

Brooks, R.. (1991). The Self-esteem Teacher. Circle Pines: American Guidance Service. The book is part of an all-school approach called "Seeds of Self-esteem" including videos, a journal and posters.

Latham, P. H. and Latham, P. S. (1994). Succeeding in the Workplace: Attention Deficit Disorder and Learning Disabilities in the Workplace. A Guide to Success. Washington, DC: JKL Communications. Information about strategies and accommodations for work success.

Levine, M. (1994). Educational Care. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service, 1994. The author describes a system for understanding and helping children with learning problems.

Lipkin, M. (1994). SchoolSearch Guide to Colleges with Programs or Services for Students with Learning Disabilities. Belmont, MA: Schoolsearch Press. (617) 489-5785.

Meltzer, L. J., et. al (1996).. Strategies for Success: Classroom Teaching Techniques for Students with Learning Problems. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, 1996. A wide range of teaching strategies that can be implemented in the inclusive classroom are offered.

Hallowell, Edward M., M.D. and Ratey, John, MD(1994). Driven to Distraction: Recognizing and Coping with ADD, from Childhood through Adulthood. New York: Pantheon Books, Hallowell and Ratey cover a broad range of issues pertaining to ADD/ADHD in both children and adults.

Silver, L. (1993). Dr. Larry Silver's Advice to Parents on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1993. A guide for parents that includes information about diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.

Silver, L. (1992). The Misunderstood Child. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB Books, . A parent's guide for understanding and helping youngsters with learning disabilities, including social, emotional and family issues.

Smith, S (1991). Succeeding Against the Odds. Los Angeles, CA: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc. Stories of adults with learning disabilities, often celebrities, with inspirational lives.

Vail, P. (1990). About Dyslexia: Unraveling the Myth. Rosemont, NJ: Modern Learning Press,

Publications Books for Children and Teens With Learning Disabilities

Fisher, G., and Cummings, R. The Survival Guide for Kids with LD. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing, 1990. (Also available on cassette)

Gehret, J. Learning Disabilities and the Don't-Give-Up-Kid. Fairport, NY: Verbal Images Press, 1990.

Janover, C. Josh: A Boy with Dyslexia. Burlington, VT: Waterfront Books, 1988.

Landau, E. Dyslexia. New York: Franklin Watts Publishing Co., 1991.

Marek, M. Different, Not Dumb. New York: Franklin Watts Publishing Co., 1985.

Levine, M. Keeping A Head in School: A Student's Book about Learning Abilities and Learning Disorders. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Services, Inc., 1990.

Books for Adults With Learning Disabilities

Adelman, P., and Wren, C. Learning Disabilities, Graduate School, and Careers: The Student's Perspective. Lake Forest, IL: Learning Opportunities Program, Barat College, 1990.

Cordoni, B. Living with a Learning Disability. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987.

Kravets, M., and Wax, I. The K&W Guide: Colleges and the Learning Disabled Student. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1992.

Magnum, C., and Strichard, S., eds. Colleges with Programs for Students with Learning Disabilities. Princeton, NJ: Peterson's Guides, 1992.

Books for Parents

Greene, L. Learning Disabilities and Your Child: A Survival Handbook. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1987.

Novick, B., and Arnold, M. Why Is My Child Having Trouble in School? New York: Villard Books, 1991.

Vail, P. Smart Kids with School Problems. New York: EP Dutton, 1987. Weiss, E. Mothers Talk About Learning Disabilities. New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1989.

Books and Pamphlets for Teachers and Specialists

Adelman, P., and Wren, C. Learning Disabilities, Graduate School, and Careers. Lake Forest, Learning Opportunities Program, Barat College, 1990.

Silver, L. ADHD: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Booklet for Teachers. Summit, NJ: CIBA-GEIGY, 1989.

Smith, S. Success Against the Odds: Strategies and Insights from the Learning Disabled. Los Angeles: Jeremy Tarcher, Inc., 1991.

Wender, P. The Hyperactive Child, Adolescent, and Adult. Attention Disorder through the Lifespan. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Related Pamphlets Available From NIH Facts About Dyslexia

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Building 31, Room 2A32 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 (301) 496-5133 Developmental Speech and Language Disorders--Hope through Research National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders PO Box 37777 Washington, DC 20013 (800) 241-1044


Einstein and Me. Available through the Learning Disabilities Association of Massachusetts, 1275 Main Street, Waltham, MA (617) 891-5009. Dr. Jerome Schultz interviews students about their experiences with learning disabilities.

How Difficult Can this Be? F.A.T. CITY. Available through CACLD, 18 Marshall Street, South Norwalk, CT 06854. (203) 838-5010. F.A.T. CITY explores the frustrations, anxiety and tension associated with learning disabilities through a simulation created by Richard Lavoie in a workshop format with teachers, parents and students.

Last One Picked...First One Picked On. Learning Disabilities and Social Skills: Available through Public Broadcasting Service (800) 344-3337. In this video, Richard Lavoie uses a workshop format to explain the social problems that LD youngsters face.

You should now:

Go back to Characteristics

E-mail J'Anne Ellsworth at

Course developed by J'Anne Ellsworth


Copyright © 1999 Northern Arizona University