The Six Critical Concepts
There are six guiding principles in IDEA 1997 that help us develop
and maintain barrier free education for all.
||Parents have rights clearly explained
in native language and have access to files, paperwork, evaluation,
mediation, due process hearings.
||Eliminate bias with nondiscriminatory
screening tools; utilize appropriate instruments with least language/culture
bias, gain parent agreement and share findings clearly; multiple
instruments used, including adaptive life skills.
||Free Appropriate Public Education
or FAPE includes developing and implementing an IEP, and providing
the services students need.
||Least Restrictive Environment or LRE
asks that students be included in a normal setting to the full extent
possible, including having access to the general curriculum.
|Parent / student participation
||Decisions, from initial
screening to reviews are parent, professional, school and student
collaborations and student should be included as possible --mandatory
participation by age 16.
||All students are served, regardless
of disability, cost, communicable diseases or behavioral issues.
The following chart uses making a Cake
as a Metaphor for
the IEP Process
We check the cupboard to be certain we have all
the ingredients for a chocolate cake.
Differential criteria for eligibility Determine
need and explore range of services that may help.
|| The first step is making a plan for if and when the
cake will be needed, what kind of cake it will be and who the cooks
||Pre-referral step when it is determined, by a team
who care about the student, if the child is eligible for service,
using observations and informal assessments.
||We decide we want a cake for today and we have all
the ingredients for a Rocky Road chocolate cake with marshmallow
||Observations: The child is eligible for services,
will benefit from them and we begin to recognize the most beneficial
||The Master Chef makes certain that all
ingredients are gathered, inspected for purity and freshness, measured
and added together in proper order.
||Using procedural safeguards, informed
and written consent from parents, an evaluation is conducted that
is as free as possible from cultural and linguistic bias..
||The cooks blend all the ingredients,
beating for the right amount of time, then find the proper cake
pans, prepare them correctly and bake the cake for the required
time at the proper temperature.
A battery of tests is administered and the team gathers to evaluate
assessment results. The psychologist explains the results and
the team determines eligibility and sets up an IEP meeting, including
the proper team members..
|A great icing is chosen to compliment the cake, it's
whipped up and the cake is decorated.
||Student strengths and needs are explored by all members
of the team and goals and objectives are developed
|Team meets to agree on IEP
|| Everyone is invited to the party
||All are invited to the IEP teaming, including
parents and when practical, the student
||The party starts, refreshments are served and the
||IEP includes present level of functioning, goals,
the types of services provided and the environment best for providing
the services and meeting the student needs.
||Everyone agrees to make this an annual event and celebrate
||IEP evaluated each year, while student reevaluation
need assessed every three years.
You should now:
Go back to Advanced CD
E-mail J'Anne Ellsworth at Janne.Ellsworth@nau.edu
Course developed by J'Anne
Copyright © 1999
Northern Arizona University
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED