Essentials PEPSI Elementary Adolescence Advanced CD
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ESE504 : The Class : Advanced CD : Chapters Six - Eight

Enhancing Motivation

Methods and Materials

The next few chapters provide insights into the methods and materials that help students learn. You will have an opportunity to build a teaching portfolio, including teaching strategies and tactics for individualizing instruction and providing support to students in different categories of ability.

1. Set up a system for collecting interventions, methods and materials to facilitate teaching.

2. Categorize the strategies and interventions by type of activity and most appropriate use.

3. The following didactic will help you to organize the strategy and catalogue it for use in the classroom.

Grade Level ______
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9

Strategy = S Individualization = I Novel notion =N Group activity = G




At-risk LD      
Behavior issues      
Health issues      
Learning disability      
Mild Dev Delay      
Moderate DD      
Low Incidence      


No matter how many ways we adapt learning activities, the critical piece is still

to do what is best for the student.


Content is important,

the community of learners is important,

the teacher is important - - -

but the student is the critical piece.

Remember: It is in valuing each student, supporting the strengths and accepting who the child -- that is the important foundational piece. It is certainly possible to find numerous ways to teach subjects simultaneously with building the youth --- but the important piece is wanting the child as is = who and what he or she is, and honoring and fine tuning who the child may become rather than working to change the impossible.

If a child cannot carry a tune, we can provide lessons to increase singing quality--- but the basic inability to stay in tune will still be there - and the child is not a good candidate for an acapella singing group.

If a child has seizures, it is a bad idea to expect them to "tell themselves" to stop having seizures and unfortunate to set the student up to learn to be a long distance truck driver.

This can be an endless list.

What do we ask of the child with ADD?

What do we focus on when a child is dyslexic?

How will you balance the human need to have - with what we don't have or can't have?

How will you balance disappointment with realism?

How do you guide a youngster or a family to recognize the difference between goals that make sense for a student, like learning to button or to tie shoes and some that may not make sense, like being responsible for finances, or going to college to be a teacher?

How do you temper hopes and dreams without seeming cruel?

What is the magic place in self esteem that says "I like you just the way you are -- but I know you can take your greatness, your gift, your challenges one step further?

Teachers have always felt empowered to develop individualized classroom teaching styles. These chapters facilitate teacher expertise in building on student strengths and gifts as well as developing strategies to meet instructional challenges.

1. Chapter Seven: Adapting the Socioemotional Environment

Assignment: Address the tough issue of asking students to be more than they are, or all they can be by thinking about your feelings with respect to yourself and then with respect to your own children or students. Move the idea around to different fields. Have trouble in math? What kind of challenges will you respond to from others - and from yourself. Have trouble dancing? What would it take to get you up in front of others singing a solo or dancing in competition. How involved is your self esteem? When challenged beyond your ability to rise to the occasion, do you become defensive? Quite trying? Become deeply motivated?

Now write a one minute essay about this issue for 25 points.

2. Chapter Eight: Adapting the Behavioral Environment

Assignment: Structure is a key element in this chapter. It is also important because it relates to one of the most basic human needs - the need for safety and security. Another way that it serves a vital purpose is setting up a pattern or ritual that students can come to expect. Balancing the student need for structure and the teacher's need for it is especially difficult. For some teachers, structure is hard because it causes them to hold to a standard, to be more prepared more organized, more ritualized than they like. In this instance, the teacher often feels pushed by students. Sometimes it is difficult because it forces the teacher to be more self discipline, controlled, willing to accept responsibility to nurture students as they learn self control rather than getting upset, angry or punitive with students who have the greatest challenges in learning to accept an cooperative within a structured setting.

Review your own feelings about structure and videotape a typical hour in your class. Go through and check on each instance when you had a structure in place, a procedure, for example and were using it. Also make note of how many minutes in that your were spontaneous. Note who does the talking, how many students appear to be on task and how much time you were on task. Report that you have taped and analyzed yourself in class and receive 50 points. There is no need to disclose your findings unless you wish to do so.

If you do not teach, ask a colleague to permit you to tape the class or to sit in and make notes about structure. The same procedures for reviewing the hour can be used and you can receive the 50 points by reporting that you observed in the classroom and evaluated the structure.

3. Chapter Nine: Adapting the Physical Environment

Assignment: After reading this chapter, think of five ways that you would like schools to change physically to better meet children's needs. Look the list over. Now make a goal to begin one of those changes in your teaching setting. Once you have written out the goal, make a realistic action plan for something you could do tomorrow to begin that change. Submit your response for 25 points.


3. Chapter Ten: Adapting the Lesson Plan

Assignment: Lesson plans are nearly always done from the teacher's point of view. Take one of your most successful lessons - one you planned well and that worked well in the classroom. Go back and change the lesson, focusing on what the students will be doing rather than on what you will be doing. Send a copy of the altered lesson plan for 25 points. If you can do so, try teaching the lesson using the student focused lesson plan. Report on changes you noticed by making these changes. If you try that and send in a report of findings, give yourself 50 points.

You may not have access to a classroom. If not, try this one for a different look. Take a lesson you liked as a student and determine what level of thinking it asked from students and what forms of intelligence it featured. Now turn the lesson into a smorgasbord by adding activities that would appeal to at least three other kinds of intelligence.

Give yourself 25 points when you submit the altered lesson plan.


4. Assignment: You have a lot of personal experience in education. As you read the chapters you may have developed some idea you would like to share or a feeling about the author's position with respect to inclusion or her educational philosophy. Some of the readings in this section may be things you feel strongly about as well. Feel free to write a one minute essay expressing your ideas. Give yourself 25 points of credit for each one minute essay you submit. If you would rather submit the ideas in a chat room or in WebCT, feel free to do that, and keep track of your points.

For grading purposes, please provide the following information:

Your Name:
Your Email address:

Once you have filled in the areas above, click the Send button below to send your response to the instructor.


E-mail J'Anne Ellsworth at

Course developed by J'Anne Ellsworth


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