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ESE504 : The Class : PEPSI : 10th year

Tenth Year

Teaching & Learning Fairness

Age 10


Gross and fine motor coordination becomes consolidated.

Feelings of prowess and being in control of the self are often evident.

This is generally a time of good health - the child may recall illnesses in a retrospective manner.

Interest in sex continues and may increase, but awareness or curiosity is seldom shared with adults.

A few girls may begin to acquire secondary sex characteristics.

It is less likely that a boy actively enters puberty at this age.

Competitive use of physical skills is typical. Youngsters often enjoy team participation and may join in formal team sports.


Industry vs. Inferiority

This is considered an age of equilibrium - often the last until 16.

There is usually a feeling of consolidation and comfort which allows the child to be moderately expansive.

The child often expresses a sense of wholeness and being pleased with the self.

This is also the age at which mental health and juvenile records note entrance into delinquency, neurotic behavior patterns which may continue through life. If a child is rehearsing and showing signs which are consistently atypical and inappropriate, seek help through referral and follow it up.

This is also the age of the dreamer - dreams of future greatness, presidency, greatest pitcher in the league, the grand slam or slam dunk champion of the future.


The child is firmly set in black and white "fairness" morality.

Fair tends to mean "am I getting the best of the deal?" since the child is only dabbling in seeing others outside of personal meaning.

Deal making becomes pleasurable.

Payback begins to be valued highly.

This is an excellent time to introduce and use natural and logical forms of consequences.

The child is generally relatively willing to obey and to conform to adult expectations or requests.

Class room or family meetings can be run using democratic process with excellent results.


This is usually the last age that children express total confidence in parents and other adults.

This age child is often called pleasant, docile, obedient, happy.

This is a great time for belonging and clubs, secret codes and disappearing ink.

The pressure to conform in these groups is usually not the cohesive glue - rather the intense pleasure this age child finds in "belonging".

This age child generally is friendly at the outset of approach and expects others to exhibit kindness as well.

Younger children and sibs are usually refereed to as a bother or a tag along.

If the older child is held to a standard of taking a young sib along, there will be a heightened sense of anger, rivalry and actual blows may be exchanged.


Although the child is generally involved in concrete operations, the initial sense of intuitive logic signals entry into the formal operations stage.

The student may begin metacognition - or "thinking" about thinking.

Student show gains in the ability to share ideas and insights with fellow students.

Many youngsters begin to pursue education outside of school for personal satisfaction.

Conversations more clearly consist of a flow of information.

Excitement in science may generate pursuit in a club setting - eg. astronomy, chemistry.

Learning styles may become evident.


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