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ESE504 : The Class : PEPSI : 8th year

Eighth Year

Teaching Respect for Self and Others

Age 8


This is generally a very stable age/stage.

The small muscle coordination is consolidating, making reading and writing easier.

Physical health is usually good with fewer illness and reported aches and pains.

The child is typically expansive and may have more accidental injuries - broken bones, etc.

Often enjoys dirty words or smutty stories, though usually secretive and less comfortable in sharing with adults.

Interest in sexuality continues, but is typically covert.

Large muscle coordination has become a "joy" with the child doing tricks on the bike, gym specialties like hand springs, flips, etc. and outdoor activities are usually seen as fascinating and alluring.

Physical play may take on gender specific characteristics.


Industry vs. Inferiority

When the child, in expansive moods, takes on too much there is often self recrimination. In the new-found ability to see self as others might, there is a tendency to overdramatize failure.

In concert with new horizons, the child frequently has great beginnings and loses steam before completion.

It is helpful for adults to assist in providing energy toward the end so that the excitement does not end in despair and tears.

The child has often reached an emotional plateau with fewer fears, and less focus on the macabre or fantasy and fantastic with more centering on reality and truth.

The child appears ready for any and everything, but a tendency to be easily hurt is close to the surface.


There is typically, a real understanding of goodness and badness, right and wrong.

The child will express a belief that some actions (people) are bad and some are good.

This is generally a time when parents are noted for pronouncements of good parenting in light of the behavior and compliance as well as the good nature of the child in this stage.

Moral reasoning is very black and white, with the focus primarily on self...the reason to avoid doing wrong is to avoid being punished or viewed as bad.

The Golden Rule notion of going and saying to others what is good for the self is very rudimentary, but in formation.

Children often tattle and express: "That's not fair!"


Busy, expansive and active age.

Being less centered in the self, the child is ready for a real relationship with someone other than family members-usually a "best friend."

The relationship with at least one parent tends to be strong with the child demanding to be personally valued and understood and tends to express a need for closeness.

Sibling relationships usually do not show much change. The new ability to see anther's viewpoint does not usually extend to sibs, so fighting, tattling and jealousy continue.

There is a tendency for many children this age to experience a real understanding of envy, and possessiveness.


The child is often fascinated with real world animals, stars, science in general.

Children who are behind seem to be ready to consolidate and relearn tasks missed. Review as exercises in assimilation and accommodation will usually be appreciated.

The child is firmly able to use concrete operations. Ability to take successive transformations into account and still remain aware of facts and ideas, even when making "detours."

Thinking may be more logical.

Mental isolation and reassemble of variables becomes possible.

There is movement to a less egocentric view of life, world, others.


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