| Physiological development
is generally complete.
Nearly all students have acquired secondly sexual characteristics.
Male height may continue to develop, but body definition is generally set.
Acceptance of the body and physiognomy is occurring, and new emphasis on dress and appearance are typical.
Emphasis on sexuality and appreciation by the opposite sex are common and signal an acceptance of recent growth and change.
Primping and discussion of "in" perfume or style is age appropriate.
Anxiety about the body or inability to accept the changes may result in obsessive attention to diet, weight building or exercise.
| Intimacy vs. Isolation
The traumatic/dramatic effort to find the lost self becomes more rational and less intense.
There is an emerging sense of self identity, of who and what the person is becoming.
The lessened need to be one type of person for peers helps a sense of integrity for formulate.
A "second person perspective" may truly emerge helping the person to recognize other needs outside of the self.
Self-reliance becomes important.
There is a deepening need to reach out, give of the self and meet the needs of less fortunate others.
Those who have been overindulged may have a new sense of impoverishment
due to inability to get outside of self, put another first.
The person is more able to take a "no" answer without feeling a sense of personal loss, anger.
The student may begin to identify beyond adolescence and peerage to member of community. If so, then moral reasoning will focus on
protecting the society and following community guidelines.
The dichotomy can most easily be seen as two paths: "I've got to be me" is
more immature - stage three "For the good of all" is a movement
toward recognition of stage four membership in the community.
Classical literature may help with consolidation of personal growth
and curtail a sense of isolation.
Laws may take on a new meaning as a source of security and honor.
There may be recognition of the need to establish a belief system for self - not a reflection of childhood or peers and a sense of the
importance of meeting the best good society.
The need for peer approval uses much of the student's energy.
Students who are holding to group membership as personal identification may be less dependent or take
leadership roles in the group or "gang".
The self is more defined as a self and less dependent on external acceptance.
Family conflict may lessen due to student equilibrium, but it will resume if a basic appreciation for each
member as a person in not achieved or practiced.
Some youngsters are now looking to intimacy for definition and gratification of sexual drives.
World of work becomes very real for those who do not plan for college.
Social integration of self as more than self may lead to "citizen of the world" perception for some.
Formal Operations are in effect in both mathematical and verbal domains.
Reasoning ability and logic give a sense of pleasure.
Thoughts and ideas appear to be ways to solve problems and facilitate change.
A feeling of idealism and consolidation often blooms.
The student often wishes to "change the world" based on ideas and the shear will to make a
difference, solve problems.
Systematic and sequential reasoning become easy and fulfilling.
Synthesis becomes easier and rewarding.