I.       Proto-Historic, The Aryans

          A.      Origin

                   1.      probable ancestral homeland in Eurasian Steppes

                   2.      occupying the Iranian Plateau c. 2000 B.C.

                   3.      migration over the Hindu Kush in small groups over the next 1200 to 1500 years

                   4.      migrations end c. 7th to 6th centuries B.C.

          B.      Culture

                   1.      Political

                             a.       pastoral and nomadic

                             b.       cattle and horse herders

                             c.       organized into tribes, each headed by a chieftain and shaman (priest)

                             d.       principle allegiance to tribal unit and family

                   2.      Social

                             a.       patriarchal

                             b.       centered around household

                             c.       polygamous

                             d.       lived fully 

                                      (1)     body ornaments

                                      (2)     music

                                      (3)     sura (fermented barley)

                                      (4)     gambling

                                      (5)     chariot races

                                      (6)     battle with each other and outsiders

                             e.       cattle central to economy

                             f.       sura - barley

                             g.       soma - hallucinogenic (ergot or mushroom)

                   3.      12th century B.C. Battle of the 10 Kings

                             a.       Sudas, king of Bharata Tribe triumphs

                             b.       today, Sanskrit name for India is Bharat

          C.      The Arts

                   1.      left no cities

                   2.      no permanent art forms

                   3.      oral tradition

                             a.       language Sanskrit

                             b.       incorporated a great deal of Dravidian languages over time

          D.      The Vedas

                   1.      Veda means "Book of Knowledge"

                   2.      period often referred to as The Vedic Age

                   3.      Elaborate system of spiritual ideas originally only in oral tradition

                             a.       religious poems and hymns

                                      (1)     strictly metered

                                      (2)     aid in memorization

                             b.       only source available to reconstruct Indo-Aryans

                   4.      There are four Vedas

                   5.      The Rig Veda is the most important

                             a.       developed from c. 1500 to 900 B.C.

                             b.       1028 hymns to be sung at sacrificial rites

                   6.      Reconstruction of Aryan religion from Rig Veda

                             a.       very problematical

                             b.       gods seem to be magnified, heroic and immortal humans

                             c.       3 broad categories of gods - natures anthropomorphized

                                      (1)     celestial - heavens and sky

                                      (2)     atmospheric - weather

                                      (3)     terrestrial - earth, fire, harvest, etc.

                             d.       gods give human gifts - sacrifice gives back to gods

                             e.       heaven a realm of earthly pleasure - hell is there but not elaborated upon

                   7.      Important gods

                             a.       Savitr - solar god

                             b.       Indra - war god, also weather

                             c.       Surya - sun god

                             d.       Varuna - lord of justice and universal order

                             e.       Yama - death

                   8.      no priest/king as found in Egypt and Mesopotamia

                             a.       monarch

                             b.       purohita (shaman) - high priest

                   9.      Asvamedha - Horse Sacrifice

          E.      Late Vedic Age 1000 - 600 B.C.

                   1.      social change and upheaval

                             a.       change from herdsmen to agriculturists

                             b.       expansion into larger and fewer kingdom

                             c.       by 7th century B.C. trade reestablished with Mediterranean

                             d.       still not literate

                   2.      society divided into four classes

                             a.       division sanctioned by Vedas

                             b.       division reflective of First Man

                             c.       brahmans - priests - mouth of First Man

                             d.       kshatriyas - rulers, warriors - arms of First Man

                             e.       vaishyas - farmers, merchants - thighs of First Man

                             f.       sudras - menial workers - feet of First Man

                                      (1)     probably the indigenous dasas

                                      (2)     darkest in color

                             g.       people without class - outside of the system

                                      (1)     may have been offspring of Aryan Dasas unions

                                      (2)     or Aryans converted to Dravidian way of life

                   3.      Religious Literature

                             a.       Vedas

                                      (1)     Rig Veda - to most important

                                      (2)     Sama Veda - chants

                                      (3)     Yajur Veda - prayers and formulas for sacrifices

                                      (4)     Atharva Veda - incantations and magic formulae

                             b.       Brahmanas

                                      (1)     interpretations of the Veda ritual texts

                             c.       Upanishads

                                      (1)     Reaction against Vedic ritual

                                      (2)     by 8th century B.C. wandering hermits

                                      (3)     "to sit in front of"

                                      (4)     meditations

                                      (5)     108 Upanishads

                                      (6)     speculations on religions and the human condition - religious cum philosophical

                                      (7)     first attempt to explain the world within a framework of a single teaching

                                      (8)     Atman is Brahman, Brahman is Atman

                                                (a)     Atman - inner soul of each living thing

                                                (b)     Brahman - impersonal all-embracing divine essence

                                      (9)     no personal gods and no personal human

                                      (10)  knowledge gained through intuition via self-denial

                                      (11)  Yoga prepares one for the search

                                      (12)  liberation of worldly desires and concerns

                                      (13)  transmigration of souls

                                      (14)  samsara - cycle of birth and death to rebirth

                                      (15)  karma

                                      (16)  moksha

          F.      Epic Literature

                   1.      Mahabharata

                             a.       written down sometime between 4th century B.C. and 4th century A.D.

                             b.       concerns a 10th century B.C. major war

                                      (1)     struggle between Pandavas and Kauravas

                                      (2)     many later inserts

                             c.       longest known poem

                                      (1)     100,000 couplets

                             d.       basis for Indian culture

                             e.       small section known as The Bhavagad-Gita

                   2.      Ramayana

IV.    Intellectual, Social, and Religious Innovations - 7th - 5th centuries B.C.

          A.      worldwide intellectual and religious changes

                   1.      beginning of the Greek philosophers

                   2.      Hebrew prophets

                   3.      Confucius

                   4.      Zarathustra

                   5.      Upanishadic sages

                   6.      Mahavira and the founding of Jainism

                   7.      Siddhartha Gautama and the founding of Buddhism

          B.      Aryan tribal structure disintegrating

                   1.      present day state of Bihar and eastern Uttar Predesh

                   2.      number of small regional kingdoms

                             a.       importance of Kshaitrya class

                   3.      largest kingdom Kosala

                             a.       Sakya was a tribal dependency of Kosala

                   4.      important kingdom of Magadha

                             a.       King Bimbisara

                             b.       capital at Ragjir

                   5.      with the development of organized states

                             a.       advance of material culture

                             b.       growing wealth of Vaisya class

                             c.       undergoing state of expansion

          C.      Regional religion

                   1.      chtonic gods

                   2.      yaksha and yakshi

                   3.      naga worship

                   4.      much worship out of doors in groves (chaitya)

                   5.      worship of sacred mounds (some burial mounds)

                   6.      Upanishadic ideas generally accepted

                             a.       transmigration

                             b.       how to escape from the cycle of samsara

                             c.       teaching by way of knowledge, as opposed to way of words - long course of physical and mental discipline