I.Indus Valley Civilization

          A.      Culture area covers over half a million square miles

                   1.      foothills of Himalayas to the Arabian Sea

                   2.      Ganges watershed to Gulf of Cambay

                   3.      largest cultural domain of its era

          B.      Formation of early culture

                   1.      nomadic herders from hills of Baluchistan winter in Indus Valley

                   2.      middle of 4th millennium B.C. patterns began to change towards incipient agriculture

                             a.       crops of barley and wheat

                   3.      annual floods from summer monsoons and melted Himalaya snows

                   4.      Amri

                             a.       forms c. 3500 B.C.

                             b.       single tribal group of approximately 20 villages covers 20 acres

                             c.       architecture of mud brick

                             d.       potters wheel

                             e.       ceramic of black geometric designs

                             f.       by 2500 B.C. alluvial plain under cultivation with surplus crops

          C.      c. 2500 - 1500 B.C.E.

                   1.      Major cities

                             a.       Mohenjo-Daro (The Place of the Dead)

                                      (1)     on banks of Indus River

                                      (2)     350 miles south of Harappa

                                      (3)     layout identical to Harappa

                             b.       Harappa

                                      (1)     earliest

                                      (2)     on banks of Ravi

                             c.       Chanhu-Daro

                   2.      Architecture

                             a.       City Planning

                                      (1)     cities erected on immense mounds of earth and rubble

                                                (a)     levies

                                                (b)     irrigation systems

                                      (2)     each city follows same plan

                                      (3)     Harappa

                                                (a)     circumference of 3+ miles

                                                (b)     approximately 35000 population c. 2300 B.C.

                                      (4)     broad straight avenues run north/south

                                      (5)     meandering alleyways east/west

                             b.       Architecture and media

                                      (1)     each level of buildings very similar

                                      (2)     Corbelled arch system                    

                                      (3)     Baked brick construction

                                                (a)     bricks uniform throughout culture area

                                                (b)     fired for foundations and large buildings

                                                (c)     sun-dried for landfill and upper walls of private housesa)

                             c.       Citadels rising above cities and municipal buildings

                                      (1)     indication of a theocratic and authoritarian society?

                                      (2)     citadels always face west

                                      (3)     citadel at Harappa

                                                (a)     1400 ft. x 600 ft. on mound 40 ft. high

                                                          i)       faced foundation with brick embankment 45 ft. thick

                                      (4)     The Great Bath - Water symbolism??

                                                (a)     Mohenjo-Daro bath

                                                          i)       8 feet deep, 23 feet wide, 39 feet long

                                                          ii)      waterproofed with bitumen

                                                          iii)     cloister running around bath

                                                          iv)     8 smaller baths attached

                                      (5)     Granaries and mills

                                                (a)     municipal granaries of thousands of square feet

                                                (b)     raised brick floor for air circulation

                                                (c)     threshing areas next to granaries

                                                (d)     two room house rows running off granaries

                                      (6)     Municipal sewage system

                                                (a)     each residential house has sewage pipe with covered cesspit

                                                (b)     avenues have underground sewage pipes with sumps with removable covers at each intersection

                                                (c)     must have municipal sewage and trash system

                             d.       Domestic Buildings

                                      (1)     built for durability and privacy

                                                (a)     arranged around interior square courtyard

                                                (b)     exterior walls without windows

                                                (c)     main entrance from alley

                                      (2)     indoor plumbing

                                                (a)     all houses have bathroom

                                                          i)       paved, sloping floor

                                                          ii)      brick drain pipe

                                                          iii)     toilets with brick seats

                                                (b)     outflows to large municipal sewage system

                                                (c)     brick drain pipes

                                      (3)     trash chutes from residence to a street bin

                                      (4)     no grand entrances or exterior displays

                                      (5)     Water

                                                (a)     cisterns for each house

                                                (b)     bricks that line cisterns uniform

                                                (c)     wedge-shaped bricks

                   3.      Units of Measurement

                             a.       systemized standard of weights and measures

                             b.       weights

                                      (1)     unit based on 16

                                      (2)     cubical stones weighing exactly the same found throughout area

                                      (3)     heaviest weights 25 pounds

                             c.       measures

                                      (1)     two systems

                                                (a)     13.2 inches

                                                (b)     20.62 inches

                                      (2)     everything, everywhere based on one of these two modules

                   4.      Seals

                             a.       intaglio carving into steatite

                                      (1)     interiors subject to intense heat

                                      (2)     heat to harden steatite?

                             b.       more than 2000 found

                                      (1)     some found in Mesopotamia and Egypt

                                      (2)     no relief stamps found

                             c.       pictographic inscriptions

                                      (1)     250 different signs

                                      (2)     none corresponds to Egyptian or Sumerian alphabets

                   5.      Ceramics

                             a.       Figurines

                                      (1)     phallic figures

                                      (2)     female "goddesses"

                             b.       utilitarian objects

                             c.       "play toys"

                                      (1)     figures

                                      (2)     animals

                                      (3)     carts

                   6.      Sculpture

                             a.       bronze dancing girl

                             b.       male busts

                                      (1)     dancing Siva

                                      (2)     priest

                                      (3)     male torso

          D.      C. 1800 B.C.

                   1.      after 500 years of sameness, change

                             a.       climate

                                      (1)     monsoons shift toward east

                             b.       environmental abuse

                                      (1)     centuries of intense cultivation

                                      (2)     soil depletion

                                      (3)     overly ambitious irrigation systems

                                      (4)     overgrazing

                                      (5)     deforestation

                   2.      after 1800 B.C. no mention in Mesopotamia

                   3.      by end 1700 B.C. major cities abandoned

                             a.       squatters take over buildings

                             b.       probably came from "primitive" villages

                             c.       divide large public buildings into smaller living areas

                             d.       slums