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ESE504 : The Class : PEPSI : 4th year


Age 4


Children usually relish outdoor play - sliding, biking, playing in water, running, swinging

Jungle gyms may be a passion.

Vivid dramatic play with lots of imagination is common.

Bowels are usually under control, though bed wetting is still occurring for some.

This is a noisy age and even when alone the child may converse with self. Imaginative play includes lots of verbalizations.

Language is exciting for the child with plays on words, nursery rhymes, and silly word plays consuming much time and energy.

Meals and food are often an issue at this age. Taking away all forms of junk and serving small portions may help.


Initiative vs. Guilt Egocentrism is common.

When the child does not wish to conform there are frequent tantrums, eruptions and verbal remonstrations.

This may be a very stormy age with words like exuberance and out of bounds used to give a flavor of the energy of this age.

Words that describe this age may include enthusiastic, spontaneous, excited, happy, and combustible!

Permitting freedom of choice and enterprise works best as encouragement.

Modeling also helps the child to obtain better behavior sets.

Imaginative materials and ideas will help distract the child at those times when self control flags.

Rest and quite times are a real assist to this age group.


The child is pre-moral and may talk about and think about God rather often.

Fantasy and rather entwined for this age group.

Lying is generally an effort not to get caught rather than naughtiness, and there is seldom real awareness of lying until it is brought to the child's attention.

Cheating is usually a reflection of the child's wish to compete and win.

Losing a game is nearly beyond this age's ability to do with composure.

Obstinacy causes more disharmony than meanness.

Taking things is common, but seldom with malice, rather with the wonder and wishing for the object taking precedence over self control.

The fantasy world is quite compelling.


Role playing and helping are great pastimes.

Interest in friends seems paramount and passionate.

Bathroom privacy is often insisted upon.

Encourage and model any behaviors desired, since this is an optimal time for learning through modeling. This would include sharing, helping, controlling temper.

Hero worship is common for this age group. It may help a child to be more appropriate if asked to behave as a hero might or to get the job done as "Rambo" would.

Play can be extended and children need less supervision, but frequent adult checks are important as are nourishing snacks and short rest times. This may help the child feel more in control of self, and less frantic.


The child becomes more involved in concrete concept formation.

Language, word play and word usage are nearly a passion.

For may children talking is almost constant - including inanimate objects.

Skill in manipulating increases.

Love of music shows.

TV may mesmerize.

Overgeneralization as a way of classifying and thinking shows up in language.

Questions is at an all time high.

Many can count and tell time.

Sense of space is expanding.


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Go on to 5th Year
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